The Searching Wolf
Ever-So-Often Wolf World News
Savolainen, P., Y. Zhang, J. Luo, J. Lundeberg, and T. Leitner
Genetic Evidence for an East Asian Origin of Domestic Dogs
Science 298(5598):1610-1613 (2002)
Leonard, J., R.K. Wayne, J. Wheeler, R. Valadez, S. Guillén,
and C. Vilà
Ancient DNA Evidence for Old World Origin of New World Dogs
Science 298(5598):1613-1616 (2002)
Hare, B., M. Brown, C. Williamson, and M. Tomasello
The Domestication of Social Cognition in Dogs
Science 298(5598):1634-1636 (2002)
Nowak R. M. and N.E. Federoff
The systematic status of the Italian wolf Canis lupus
Kennedy, L.J., A. Barnes, G.M. Happ, R.J. Quinnell, O. Courtenay, S.D. Carter,
W.E.R. Ollier, and W. Thomson
Evidence for extensive DLA polymorphism in different dog populations
Tissue Antigens 60(1):43-52 (2002)
Larsen, R.S., M.R. Loomis, B.T. Kelly, K.K. Sladky, M.K. Stoskopf, W.A. Horne
Cardiorespiratory effects of medetomidine-butorphanol, medetomidine-butorphanol-diazepam, and medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine in captive red wolves (Canis rufus)
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 33(2):101-107 (2002)
Svartberg, K. and B. Forkman
Personality traits in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)
Darimont, C.T. and T.E. Reimchen
Intra-hair stable isotope analysis implies seasonal shift to salmon in gray wolf diet
Canadian Journal of Zoology 80(9):1638-1642 (2002)
Peterson, R.O,, A.K. Jacobs, T.D. Drummer, L.D. Mech, and D.W. Smith
Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves, Canis lupus
Canadian Journal of Zoology 80(8):1405-1412 (2002)
Wilmers, C.C. and D.R. Stahler
Constraints on active-consumption rates in gray wolves, coyotes, and grizzly bears
Canadian Journal of Zoology 80(7):1256-1261 JUL (2002)
Hedrick, P.W., R.N. Lee, and D. Garrigan
Major histocompatibility complex variation in red wolves: Evidence for common ancestry with
coyotes and balancing selection
Molecular Ecology 11(10):1905-1913 (2002)
Haydon, D.T., M.K. Laurenson, C. Sillero-Zubiri
Integrating epidemiology into population viability analysis: Managing the risk posed by rabies
and canine distemper to the Ethiopian wolf
Conservation Biology 16(5):1372-1385 (2002)
Gipson, P.S., E.E. Bangs, T.N. Bailey, D.K. Boyd, H.D. Cluff, D.W. Smith, and M.D. Jiminez
Color patterns among wolves in western North America
Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(3):821-830 (2002)
Wolf-human interactions in Alaska and Canada: A review of the case history
Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(3):831-843 (2002)
Haight, R.G., L.E. Travis, K. Nimerfro, and L.D. Mech
Computer simulation of wolf-removal strategies for animal damage control
Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(3):844-852 (2002)
He, M., J. Lin, H. Jiang, and X. Liu
The two populations' cellular automata model with predation based on the Penna model
Inoue-Murayama, M, N. Matsuura, Y. Murayama, T. Tsubota, T. Iwasaki, H. Kitagawa, and S, Ito
Sequence comparison of the dopamine receptor D4 Exon III repetitive region in several species of the order Carnivora
Gazzola, A., E. Avanzinelli, L. Mauri, M. Scandura, and M. Apollonio
Temporal changes of howling in south European wolf packs
Italian Journal of Zoology 69(2):157-161 (2002)
EVOLUTION & PALEONTOLOGY
Sotnikova, M.V., V.S. Baigusheva, and V.V. Titov
Carnivores of the Khapry faunal assemblage and their stratigraphic implications
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 10(4):375-390 (2002)
Ishiguro, N, A. Nakajima, M. Horiuchi, and M. Shinagawa
Multiple nuclear pseudogenes of mitochondrial DNA exist in the canine genome
Mammalian Genome 13(7):365-372 (2002)
Randi, E and V. Lucchini
Detecting rare introgression of domestic dog genes into wild wolf (Canis lupus) populations by Bayesian admixture analyses of microsatellite variation
Conservation Genetics 3(1):31-45 (2002)
(Currently, you can download this article and other articles in issue 1 of volume 3 for free!)
INTERACTION OF PREDATORS
Arjo, W.M., D.H. Pletscher, and R.R. Ream
Dietary overlap between wolves and coyotes in northwestern Montana
Bertram, M.R. and N.T. Vivion
Moose mortality in eastern interior Alaska
Journal of Wildlife Management 66(3):747-756 (2002)
DelGiudice, G.D., M.R. Riggs, P. Joly, and W. Pan
Winter severity, survival, and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer in north-central Minnesota
Journal of Wildlife Management 66(3):698-717 (2002)
Does predation on neonates inherently select for earlier births?
Wirsing, A.J., T.D. Steury, and D.L. Murray
Relationship between body condition and vulnerability to predation in red squirrels and snowshoe hares
Walker, S.L., W.T. Waddell, and K.L. Goodrowe
Reproductive endocrine patterns in captive female and male red wolves (Canis rufus) assessed by fecal and serum hormone analysis
Zoo Biology 21(4):321-335 (2002)
Theuerkauf, J. and W. Jedrzejewski
Accuracy of radiotelemetry to estimate wolf activity and locations
Journal of Wildlife Management 66(3):859-864 (2002)
For the wolf history section of your bookshelf:
Wolf Mountains: A History of Wolves Along the Great Divide
By Karen R. Jones
University of Calgary Press (Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 2002)
336 pages, hardcover
A history of wolves, national parks, and wildlife protection. The national parks involved are Yellowstone, Glacier, Banff, and Jasper.
The original status of wolves in eastern North America
Southeastern Naturalist 1(2):95-130 (2002)
Shadow Mountain: A Memoir of Wolves, A Woman, and the Wild
By Renée Askins
Doubleday (New York, 2002)
322 pages, hardcover
Renée Askins founded the Wolf Fund and was a major player in the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park. This is her personal reflections of a tremendously important conservation story.
Kojola, I. and J. Kuittinen
Wolf attacks on dogs in Finland
Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(2):498-501 (2002)
Williams, C.K., G. Ericsson, and T.A. Heberlein
A quantitative summary of attitudes toward wolves and their reintroduction (1972-2000)
Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(2):575-84 (2002)
Miller, D.H., A.L. Jensen, and J.H. Hammill
Density dependent matrix model for gray wolf population projection
Ecological Modelling 151(2-3):271-278 (2002).
Hebblewhite. M., D.H. Pletscher, and P.C. Paquet,
Elk population dynamics in areas with and without predation by recolonizing wolves in Banff National Park, Alberta,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 80(5):789-799 (2002).
Hebblewhite, M. and D.H. Pletscher,
Effects of elk group size on predation by wolves,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 80(5):800-809 (2002).
Norris, D.R., M.T. Theberge, and J.B. Theberge,
Forest composition around wolf (Canis lupus) dens in eastern Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 80(5):866-872 (2002).
Mech, L.D. and N.E. Federoff,
Alpha1-Antitrypsin polymorphism and systematics of eastern North American wolves,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 80(5):961-963 (2002).
A study conducted by researchers from Montana State University and Michigan Technological University finds that there is a correlation between snowmobile activity and the release of stress hormones (glucocorticoids) in wolves and elk. This physiological effect may impact on their reproductive and immune systems. However, current levels of snowmobile activity have not affected the population dynamics of either species in the locations studied.
Creel, S., J.E. Fox, A. Hardy, J. Sands, B. Garrott, and R.O. Peterson
Snowmobile activity and glucocorticoid stress responses in wolves and elk
Conservation Biology 16(3):809-814 (2002).
This book is about the beginnings of today's discussions about wildlife management.
Changing Tracks: Predators and Politics in Mt. McKinley National Park
Univrsity of Alaska Press, Fairbanks (2001)
Published in both hardcover and softcover
Murray, D.L. and S. Lariviere
The relationship between foot size of wild canids and regional snow conditions:
Evidence for selection against a high footload?
Journal of Zoology (London) 256(Part 3):289-299 (2002)
Andersone, Z., V. Lucchini, E. Randi, and J. Ozolins
Hybridization between wolves and dogs in Latvia as documented using mitochondrial and
microsatellite DNA markers
Mammalian Biology 67(2):79-90 (2002).
Fredrickson, R. and P. Hedrick
Body size in endangered Mexican wolves: Effects of inbreeding and cross-lineage matings
Animal Conservation 5(Part 1):39-43 (2002)
Jedrzejewski, W., K. Schmidt, J. Theuerkauf,
B. Jedrzejewska, N. Selva, K. Zub, and
Kill rates and predation by wolves on ungulate populations in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland)
Ecology 83(5):1341-1356 (2002)
Person, D.K., R.T. Bowyer, and V. Van Ballenberghe
Density dependence of ungulates and functional responses of wolves: Effect on predator-prey ratios
Alces 37(2):253-273 (2001)
Tremblay, J., H. Jolicoeur, and R. Lemieux
Summer food habits of gray wolves in the boreal forest of the Lac Jacques-Cartier Highlands, Quebec
Alces 37(1):1-12 (2001)
Stumbling toward enlightenment: Understanding caribou dynamics
Alces 37(2):457-474 (2001)
MacNulty, D.R., N. Varley, and D.W. Smith
Grizzly bear, Ursus arctos, usurps Bison, Bison bison, captured by wolves, Canis lupus in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming
Canadian Field-Naturalist 115(3):495-498 (2001)
Enck, J.W. and T.L. Brown
New Yorkers' attitudes toward restoring wolves to the Adirondack Park
Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(1):16-28 (2002)
Ferguson, S.H. and S. Lariviere
Can comparing life histories help conserve carnivores?
Animal Conservation 5(Part 1):1-12 (2002)
Gog, J., R. Woodroffe, and J. Swinton
Disease in endangered metapopulations: The importance of alternative hosts
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 269(1492):671-676 (2002)
Heilman, G.E., Jr., J.R. Strittholt, N.C. Slosser, and D.A. Dellasala
Forest fragmentation of the conterminous United Sates: Assessing forest intactness through
road density and spatial characteristics
Bioscience 52(5):411-422 (2002).
Lucchini, V., E. Fabbri, F. Marucco, S. Ricci, L. Boitani, and E. Randi
Noninvasive molecular tracking of colonizing wolf (Canis lupus) packs in the western Italian Alps
Molecular Ecology 11(5):857-868 (2002)
Treves, A., R.R. Jurewicz, and L. Naughton-Treves
Wolf depredation on domestic animals in Wisconsin, 1976-2000
Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(1):231-241 (2002)
Li, D.Q. and Z.G. Jiang
Population Viability Analysis for the Przewalski's Gazelle
Contested natures: Wolves in late modernity
Linnell, J.D.C. and O. Strand
Do arctic foxes Alopex lagopus depend on kills made by large predators?
Wildlife Biology 8:(1) 69-75 (2002)
Salvatori, V., H. Okarma, O. Ionescu, Y. Dovhanych, S. Find'o, L. Boitani
Hunting legislation in the Carpathian Mountains: implications for the conservation and management of large carnivores
Wildlife Biology 8:(1) 3-10 (2002)
Van Valkenburgh, B. and T. Sacco
Sexual dimorphism, social behavior, and intrasexual
competition in large Pleistocene carnivorans
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22:(1) 164-169 (2002).
This research suggests that the dire wolf (Canis dirus)
had a low level of sexual dimorphism and thus a
pair-bonded breeding structure. The basis of this
conclusion is the correlation found in living carnivorans
between the degree of sexual dimorphism in canine tooth
size and breeding system. Those with a pair-bonded
breeding structure are less dimorphic than species with
a uni-male, group living breeding system.
Briscoe, B.K., M.A. Lewis, and S.E. Parrish
Home range formation in wolves due to scent marking
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 64:(2) 261-284 (2002).
This paper proposes a mechanism by which the home range of
a wolf pack can be formed without a den site or the absence of
Shabadash, S.A. and T.I. Zelikina
Once more about hepatoid circumanal glands of dogs:
History of their discovery and causes of revision of their
structure and function
Biology Bulletin 29:(2) 139-147 (2002).
A redoing of work on the hepatoid circumanal glands that
secrete an odoriferous substance essential for wolf and dog
communication. The researchers proved that the glands are
exocrine and secrete a protein. Also noted is that there
are three kinds of exocrine glands in the skin surrounding
the canid anus: hepatoid, apocrine, and sebaceous.
Now in bookstores:
Wolves at Our Door: The Extraordinary Story of the Couple Who Lived with
By Jim and Jamie Dutcher
Pocket Books, New York (2002)
Hardcover, 302 pages
This is the story of the Dutchers' life with and filming of wolves. The emotion-packed epilogues are worth the price of the book.
U.S. wild wolf numbers from page 3 of the January 2002 issue of Wolf Tracks, a publication of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service:
|Michigan - Upper Peninsula*||249|
|Michigan - Isle Royale*||19|
6 breeding pairs
10 breeding pairs
14 breeding pairs
|Arizona and New Mexico||
unknown number of pups
The address for Wolf Tracks is:
U.S. Department of the Interior
Fish & Wildlife Service
Bishop Henry Whipple Federal Building
1 Federal Drive
Fort Snelling, MN 55111
The website that includes Wolf Tracks is still unresponsive.
The Death of a Thousand Wolves (25 minutes, 2001), a Outdoor Life Network: Earth Rescue film produced by Apenglow Films, is about the recent history of the Minnesota delisting controversy.
The video's price is $7.95 and can be obtained from:
Custom Recording & Sound, Inc.
3907 Custer Drive
Boise, ID 83705
Richard P. Thiel. 2001. Keepers of the Wolves: The Early Years of Wolf Recovery in Wisconsin. The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI. 228 pages.
Approaches to the study of territory size and shape,
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32:277-303 (2001).
Carmichael, L.E., J.A. Nagy, N.C. Larter, and C. Strobeck,
Prey specialization may influence patterns of gene flow in wolves of the Canadian Northwest,
Molecular Ecology 10(12):2787-2798 (2001).
Jedrzejewski, W., K. Schmidt, J. Theuerkauf, B. Jedrzejewska, and H. Okarma,
Daily movements and territory use by radio-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in Bialowieza Primeval Forest in Poland,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 79(11):1993-2004 (2001).
Pozio, E., A. Casulli, V.V. Bologov, G. Marucci, and G. La Rosa,
Hunting practices increase the prevalence of Trichinella infection in wolves from European Russia.
Journal of Parasitology 87(6):1498-1501 (2001).
Scandura, M., M. Apollonio, and L. Mattioli,
Recent recovery of the Italian wolf population: A genetic investigation using microsatellites,
Mammalian Biology 66(6):321-331 (2001).
Shore, R.F., A. Casulli, V. Bologov, C.L. Weinburg, A. Afsar, P. Toyne,
and G. Dell'Omo,
Organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl and heavy metal concentrations in wolves (Canis lupus L. 1758) from north-west Russia,
Science of the Total Environment 280(1-3):45-54 (2001).
Be sure to run out and buy a copy of the January 2002 issue of the National Geographic now on magazine racks. The cover story is about wolf and dog evolution.
A wolf and four coyotes were observed to simultaneously attack and kill a bison calf in Yellowstone National Park. The occurrence was in late winter (March 24, 1999) when bison are weak from little to eat. The observers doubt that the wolf and coyotes were cooperating in the attack. It is the first report of a simultaneous prey attack by a wolf and coyotes. Wolves have very little tolerance for coyotes, and consistent with that behavior the wolf took control of the kill and didn't allow the coyotes to feed. How long the control was maintained was not observed.
Reference: Douglas W. Smith, Kerry M. Murphy, and Stan Monger. (2002). Killing of a bison, Bison bison, calf by a wolf, Canis lupus, and four coyotes, Canis latrans, in Yellowstone National Park. Canadian Field-Naturalist 115(2):343-345.
The Texas A & M Wildlife Job Board is an important place to go on the web for anyone looking for wildlife employment. It can also give those interested in a future in wildlife work some insight into the kind of jobs available in the area.
This web site will relist the wolf US Department of Interior web sites when they are up and running again.
Read about and sign up for the National
Wildlife Fedration's monthly
e-Wolf Newsletter go to:
Here are some wolf numbers from the fall 2000 issue of the publication The Wild Canid Center Review:
In captivity: 197 in 42 US and Mexican facilities
In the wild of Arizona and New Mexico: 6 packs - 27 adults plus an unknown number of pups from two litters
In captivity: 163 at 32 institutions plus a captive population at Sandy Ridge near
the North Carolina release site and free-roaming wolves on Bulls and St.
In the wild of northeastern North Carolina: 100
In the wild: less than 500
A research article published in a Canadian journal is causing a bit of a stir in wolfdom. The article's citation:
Wilson, Paul J., Sonya Grewal, Ian D. Lawford, et al.
DNA profiles of the eastern Canadian wolf and the red wolf provide evidence for a common evolutionary history independent of the gray wolf
Canadian Journal of Zoology 78(12):2156-2166 (2000).
DNA from eastern Canadian wolves, gray wolves (Canis lupus) from other areas of North America, coyotes (Canis latrans), and red wolves (Canis rufus) were compared. The results indicate that (1) the eastern Canadian wolf is not a gray wolf, (2) the eastern Canadian wolf and the red wolf are very closely related, and (3) the eastern North American wolves are more closely related to the coyote than to the gray wolf. Based on these findings, the authors suggest the following evolutionary model: There was a branching 1 - 2 million years ago from a common ancestor of gray wolves, the eastern North American wolves, and coyote. One of the branches migrated to Eurasia and there gave rise to the gray wolf. The other branch remained in North America and 150,000 - 300,000 years ago branched into the ancestor of the eastern North American wolves and the coyote.
This work supports the idea that the red wolf belongs to a longstanding species and is not the result of gray wolf-coyote hybridization.
This book is a result of a wolf and human interactions conference held at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, NY in October 1998.
The book has 7 sections and 20 chapters. The section titles are:
I. Place and process: Political and policy perspectives on wolf
II. Voice: The interests and concerns of stakeholders
III. Precedents and antecedants in law and regulation
IV. Lessons learned and applied
V. Wildness: The wolf, the human, and the meaning of responsibility
VI. Thinking like a mountain: Philosophical analyses of long-term
VII. Consciousness: Ecological and cultural
Chapter 2 is by L. David Mech - "Wolf restoration to the Adirondacks: The
advantages and disadvantages of public participation in the decision."
Chapter 12 is by Rolf O. Peterson - "Wolves as top carnivores: New faces in new places."
This book has wonderfully illustrated wolf information, with an emphasis on humankind's relationship to wolves. After basic information about the nature of wolves, the topics covered include wolves and myths, wolf management, wolves as outlaws, and defending wolves.
This book is made up of 4 chapters, each by a careful observer of the natural world. The chapter titles and authors are:
"Human restoration," by Bill McKibben
"An ecologist's perspective on wolf recovery in the northeastern United
States," by John B. Theberge
"Dreams of wolves," by Kristin DeBoer
"Vermont as Montana," by Rick Bass