The Searching Wolf

Recent Wolf Technical Journal Articles

1988 to Present

This bibliography contains most of the North American wolf references from 1988 to the present. It does not include conference proceedings or many European and Asian references. For older and other references, try the following:

I will add references here as they come across my desk from journals and search services. If you have any references of this sort in the time frame noted that you feel should be here, please e-mail them to me. Also, if you find any errors (even nits in formatting) please pass them to me at Thanks.

Anthropology, Archeology, Paleontology, and Evolution

Binder, W.J., E.N. Thompson, and B. Van Valkenburgh,
Temporal variation in tooth fracture among Rancho La Brea dire wolves,
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(2):423-428 (2002).

Brantingham, P.J.,
Hominid-carnivore coevolution and invasion of the predatory guild,
Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 17(4):327-353 (1998).

Brisbin, I.L., Jr. and T.S. Risch,
Primitive dogs, their ecology and behavior: Unique opportunities to study the early development of the human-canine bond,
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210(8):1122-1126 (1997).

Clark, K.M.,
Neolithic dogs: A reappraisal based on evidence from the remains of a large canid deposited in a ritual feature,
International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 6(2):211-219 (1996).

Duckler, G.L. and B. Van Valkenburgh,
Exploring the health of late Pleistocene mammals: The use of Harris lines,
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18(1):180-188 (1998).

Janis, C.M. and P. B. Wilhelm,
Were there mammalian pursuit predators in the Tertiary? Dances with wolf avatars,
Journal of Mammalian Evolution 1(2):103-125 (1993).

Murray, D.L. and S. Lariviere,
The relationship between foot size of wild canids and regional snow conditions: Evidence for selection against a high footload?,
Journal of Zoology, London 256(Part 3):289-299 (2002).

Nowak, R.M.,
The original status of wolves in eastern North America,
Southeastern Naturalist 1(2):95-130 (2002).

Sotnikova, M.V., V.S. Baigusheva, and V.V. Titov,
Carnivores of the Khapry faunal assemblage and their stratigraphic implications,
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation 10(4):375-390 (2002).

Tchernov, E. and F.F. Valla,
Two new dogs, and other Natufian dogs, from the southern Levant,
Journal of Archaeological Science 24(1):65-95 (1997).

Tedford, R,H., B.E. Taylor, and X. Wang,
Phylogeny of the Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae): The Living Taxa,
American Museum Novitates (3146):1-37 (1995).

Tsuda, K., Y. Kikkawa, H. Yonekawa, and Y. Tanabe,
Extensive interbreeding occurred among multiple matriarchal ancestors during the domestication of dogs: Evidence from inter- and intraspecies polymorphisms in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA between dogs and wolves,
Genes & Genetic Systems 72(4):229-238 (1997).

Van Valkenburgh, B. and F. Hertel,
Tough times at La Brea: Tooth breakage in large carnivores of the late Pleistocene,
Science 261(5120):456-459 (1993).

Van Valkenburgh, B. and T. Sacco,
Sexual dimorphism, social behavior, and intrasexual competition in large Pleistocene carnivorans,
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22:(1) 164-169 (2002).

Vilà, C., J.E. Maldonado, and R.K. Wayne,
Phylogenetic relationships, evolution, and genetic diversity of the domestic dog,
Journal of Heredity 90(1):71-77 (1999).

Vilà, C., P. Savolainen, J.E. Maldonado, I.R. Amorim, J.E. Rice, R.L. Honeycutt, K.A. Crandall, J. Lundeberg, and R.K. Wayne,
Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog,
Science 276(5319):1687-1689 (1997).

Wang, X.,
Pleistocene dire wolf remains from the Kansas river with notes on dire wolves in Kansas,
Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas (137):1-8 (1990).

Wayne, R.K.,
Molecular evolution of the dog family,
Trends in Genetics 9(6):218-224 (1993).

Wilson, P.J., S. Grewal, I.D. Lawford, J.N.M. Heal, A.G. Granacki, D. Pennock, J.B. Theberge, M.T. Theberge, D.R. Voigt, W. Waddell, R.E. Chambers, P.C. Paquet, G. Goulet, D. Cluff, and B.N. White,
DNA profiles of the eastern Canadian wolf and the red wolf provide evidence for a common evolutionary history independent of the gray wolf,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 78(12):2156-2166 (2000).

Ethiopian Wolf (Canis simensis)

Gottelli, D. and C. Sillero-Zubiri,
The Ethiopian wolf - an endangered endemic canid,
Oryx 26(4):205-214 (1992).

Gottelli, D., C. Sillero-Zubiri, G.D. Applebaum, M.S. Roy, D.J. Girman, J. Garcia-Moreno, E.A. Ostranders, and R.K.Wayne,
Molecular genetics of the most endangered canid: The Ethiopian wolf Canis simensis,
Molecular Ecology 3(4):301-312 (1994).

Malcolm, J.,
The diet of the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis Ruppell) from a grassland area of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia,
African Journal of Ecology 35(2):162-164 (1997).

Sillero-Zubiri, C.,
Field immobilization of Ethiopian wolves,
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32(1):147-151 (1996).

Sillero-Zubiri, C. and D. Gottelli,
Diet and feeding behavior of Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis),
Journal of Mammology 76(2):531-541 (1995).

Sillero-Zubiri, C. and D. Gottelli,
Spatial organization in the Ethiopian wolf Canis simensis: large packs and small stable home ranges,
Journal of Zoology, London 237(Part 1):65-81 (1995).

Sillero-Zubiri, C., D. Gottelli, and D.W. Macdonald,
Male philopatry, extra pack copulations and inbreeding avoidance in Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis),
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 38(5):331-340 (1996).

Sillero-Zubiri, C., P.J. Johnson, and D.W. Macdonald,
A Hypothesis for breeding synchrony in Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis),
Journal of Mammalogy 79(3):853-858 (1998).

Sillero-Zubiri, C., A.A. King, and D.W. Macdonald,
Rabies and mortality in Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis),
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32(1):80-86 (1996).

Sillero-Zubiri, C. and D.W. Macdonald,
Scent-marking and territorial behaviour of Ethiopian wolves Canis simensis,
Journal of Zoology, London 245(Part 3):351-361 (1998).

Sillero-Zubiri, C., F.H. Tattersall, and D.W. Macdonald,
Bale Mountains rodent communities and their relevance to the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis),
African Journal of Ecology 33(4):301-320 (1995).

Sillero-Zubiri, C., F.H. Tattersall, and D.W. Macdonald,
Habitat selection and daily activity of giant molerats Tachyoryctes macrocephalus: Significance to the Ethiopian wolf Canis simensis in the Afroalpine ecosystem,
Biological Conservation 72(1):77-84 (1995).

Stephens, P.A., C.A. d'Sa, C. Sillero-Zubiri, and N. Leader-Williams,
Impact of livestock and settlement on the large mammalian wildlife of Bale Mountains National Park, southern Ethiopia,
Biological Conservation 100(3):307-322 (2001).

Whitby, J.E., P. Johnstone, and C. Sillero-Zubiri,
Rabies virus in the decomposed brain of an Ethiopian wolf detected by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction,
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33(4):912-915 (1997).

Gray wolf (Canis lupus)


Ballard, W.B., L.A. Ayres, K.E. Roney, and T.H. Spraker,
Immobilization of gray wolves with a combination of tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride,
Journal of Wildlife Management 55(1):71-74 (1991).

Chakraborty, G. and A.K Das,
Xylazine-ketamine anaesthesia in a Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus chanco),
Indian Veterinary Journal 71(10):1047 (1994).

Holz, P., R.M. Holz, and J.E.F. Barnett,
Effects of atropine on medetomidine/ketamine immobilization in the gray wolf (Canis lupus),
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 25(2):209-213 (1994).

Kreeger, T.J., M. Callahan, and M. Beckel,
Use of medetomidine for chemical restraint of captive gray wolves (Canis lupus),
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 27(4):507-512 (1996).

Kreeger, T.J., R.E. Mandsager, U.S. Seal, M. Callahan, and M. Beckel,
Physiological response of gray wolves to butorphanol-xylazine immobilization and antagonism by naloxone and yohimbine,
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 25(1):89-94 (1989).

Kreeger, T.J. and U.S. Seal,
Immobilization of gray wolves (Canis lupus) with sufentanil citrate,
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 26(4):561-563 (1990).

Kreeger, T.J., U.S. Seal, M. Callahan, and M. Beckel,
Use of xylazine sedation with yohimbine antagonism in captive wolves,
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 24(4):688-690 (1988).

Kreeger, T.J., U.S. Seal, M. Callahan, and M. Beckel,
Physiological and behavioral responses of gray wolves (Canis lupus) to immobilization with tiletamine and zolazepam,
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 26(1):90-94 (1990).

Servin, J. and C. Huxley,
Immobilization of wild carnivores using a ketamine and xylazine mixture,
Veterinaria (Mexico City) 23(2):135-139 (1992) (In Spanish with English abstract).

Vilà, C. and J. Castroviejo,
Use of tiletamine and zolazepam to immobilize captive Iberian wolves (Canis lupus),
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 30(1):119-122 (1994).


Breit, S. and W. Künzel,
Auxiliary synovial structures for the brachial biceps and brachial muscles at the elbow joint in dogs and cats compared to wolf, tiger and cougar - Part I: dog (Canis lupus f. familiaris) and wolf (Canis lupus),
Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift 86(10):323-329 (1999) (In German with English summary).

Clutton-Brock, J., A.C. Kitchener, and J.M. Lynch,
Changes in the skull morphology of the Arctic wolf, Canis lupus arctos, during the twentieth century,
Journal of Zoology, London 233(1):19-36 (1994).

Dayan, T., D. Simberloff, E. Tchernov, and Y. Yom-Tov,
Canine carnassials: Character displacement in the wolves, jackals and foxes of Israel,
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 45(4):315-331 (1992).

Endo, H., I. Obara, T. Yoshida, M. Kurohmaru, Y. Hayashi, and N. Suzuki,
Osteometrical and CT examination of the Japanese wolf skull,
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 59(7):531-538 (1997).

Endo, H., H. Taru, K. Nakamura, H. Koie, Y. Yamaya, and J. Kimura,
MRI examination of the masticatory muscles in the gray wolf (Canis lupus), with special reference to the M. temporalis,
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 61(6):581-586 (1999).

Hell, P.,
Dental anomalies among West Carpathian wolves and their significance in dog breeding,
Zeitschrift für Jagdwissenschaft 36(4):266-269 (1990) (In German with English

Hillis, T.L. and F.F. Mallory,
Sexual dimorphism in wolves (Canis lupus) of the Keewatin District, Northwest Territories, Canada,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 74(4):721-725 (1996).

Ivanoff, D.V.,
Origin of the septum in the canid auditory bulla: Evidence from morphogenesis,
Acta Theriologica 45(2):253-270 (2000).

Ivanoff, D.V.,
Partitions in the carnivoran auditory bulla: Their formation and significance for systematics,
Mammal Review 31(1):1-16 (2001).

Lokhotop, R.I.,
Cranial and dentition anomalies in wolf of the Ukrainian territory,
Vestnik Zoologii 94(3):45-50 (1994) (In Russian with English summary).

Meyer, W. and A. Tsukise,
Lectin histochemistry of snout skin and foot pads in the wolf and the domesticated dog (Mammalia: Canidae),
Annals of Anatomy 177(1):39-49 (1995).

Okarma, H. and T. Buchalczyk,
Craniometrical characteristics of wolves Canis lupus from Poland,
Acta Theriologica 38(3):253-262 (1993).

Peichl, L.,
Catecholaminergic amacrine cells in the dog and wolf retina,
Visual Neuroscience 7(6):575-587 (1991).

Peichl, L.,
Morphological types of ganglion cells in the dog and wolf retina,
Journal of Comparative Neurology 324(4):590-602 (1992).

Peichl, L.,
Topography of ganglion cells in the dog and wolf retina,
Journal of Comparative Neurology 324(4):603-620 (1992).

Smirnov, M.N. and V.V. Shurygin,
Winter coloration of hair-covering of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) from Tuva,
Byulleten Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody (Otdel Biologicheskij)
99(1):14-16 (1991) (In Russian with English summary).

Behavior, Miscellaneous

Bascompte, J. and C. Vilà,
Fractals and search paths in mammals,
Landscape Ecology 12(4):213-221 (1997).

Bernal, J.F. and J.M. Packard,
Differences in winter activity, courtship, and social behavior of two captive family groups of Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi),
Zoo Biology 16(5):435-443 (1997).

Boitani, L. and P. Ciucci,
Comparative social ecology of feral dogs and wolves,
Ethology Ecology & Evolution 7(1):49-72 (1995).

Boyd, D.K., D.H. Pletscher, and W.G. Brewster,
Evidence of wolves, Canis lupus, burying dead wolf pups,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 107(2):230-231 (1993).

Eilam, D.,
Influence of body morphology on turning behavior in carnivores,
Journal of Motor Behavior 26(1):3-12 (1994).

Feddersen-Petersen, D.,
The ontogeny of social play and agonistic behaviour in selected canid species,
Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 42(2):97-114 (1991).

Feddersen-Petersen, D.,
Comparative studies of behavioural development of wolves (Canis lupus L) and domestic dogs (Canis lupus f. fam.): Domestication traits and selective breeding,
Tierärztliche Umschau 49(9):527-531 (1994) (In German with English abstract).

Feddersen-Petersen, D.U.,
Biology of aggression in domestic dogs,
Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 108(3):94-101 (2001) (In German with English summary).

Frank, H., M.G. Frank, L.M. Hasselbach, and D.M. Littleton,
Motivation and insight in wolf (Canis lupus) and Alaskan malamute (Canis familiaris): Visual discrimination learning,
Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 27(5):455-458 (1989).

Frank, M.G. and H. Frank,
Food reinforcement vs. social reinforcement in timber wolf pups,
Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26(5):467-468 (1988).

Geffen, E., M.E. Gompper, J.L. Gittleman, H.-K. Luh, D.W. Macdonald, and R.K. Wayne,
Size, life-history traits, and social organization in the Canidae: A reevaluation,
American Naturalist 147(1):140-160 (1996).

Ivanov, V.K.,
Observations on the behavior and biology of wolves (Canis lupus L., 1758) in the Ihtiman Sredna Gora Mountains,
Ekologiya (Sofia) (21):25-33 (1988).

Kreeger, T.J., D.L. Pereira, M. Callahan, and M. Beckel,
Activity patterns of gray wolves housed in small vs. large enclosures,
Zoo Biology 15(4):395-401 (1996).

McLeod, P.J.,
Developmental changes in associations among timber wolf (Canis lupus) postures,
Behavioural Processes 38(2):105-118 (1996).

McLeod, P.J. and J.C. Fentress,
Developmental changes in the sequential behavior of interacting timber wolf pups,
Behavioural Processes 39(2):127-136 (1997).

McLeod, P.J., W.H. Moger, J. Ryon, S. Gadbois, and J.C. Fentress,
The relation between urinary cortisol levels and social behaviour in captive timber wolves,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 74(2):209-216 (1996).

Mech, L.D.,
Daytime activities of wolves during winter in northeastern Minnesota,
Journal of Mammalogy 73(3):570-571 (1992).

Mech, L. D.,
Details of a confrontation between two wild wolves,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 71(9):1900-1903 (1993).

Mech, L.D.,
Buffer zones of territories of gray wolves as regions of intraspecific strife,
Journal of Mammalogy 75(1):199-202 (1994).

Mech, L.D.,
Regular and homeward travel speeds of Arctic wolves,
Journal of Mammalogy 75(3):741-742 (1994).

Mech, L.D.,
Alpha status, dominance, and division of labor in wolf packs,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 77(8):1196-1203 (1999).

Mech, L.D.,
Leadership in wolf, Canis lupus, packs,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 114(2):259-263 (2000).

Mech, L.D.,
"Standing over" and "hugging" in wild wolves, Canis lupus.
Canadian Field-Naturalist 115(1):179-181 (2001).

Mech, L.D. and S.B. Merrill,
Daily departure and return patterns of wolves, Canis lupus, from a den at 80ºN latitude,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 112(3):515-517 (1998).

Mech, L.D., P.C. Wolf, and J.M. Packard,
Regurgitative food transfer among wild wolves,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 77(8):1192-1195 (1999).

Moger, W.H., L.E. Ferns, J.R. Wright, Jr., S. Gadbois, and P.J. McLeod,
Elevated urinary cortisol in a timber wolf (Canis lupus): A result of social behaviour or adrenal pathology?
Canadian Journal of Zoology 76(10):1957-1959 (1998).

Musiani, M., H. Okarma, and W. Jedrzejewski,
Speed and actual distances travelled by radiocollared wolves in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland),
Acta Theriologica 43(4):409-416 (1998).

Schneider, S.M.,
Wasps' nests and wolf packs: A note on extending behavior setting theory to non-human groups,
Journal of Environmental Psychology 10(4):371-376 (1990).

Schröpfer, R. and A. Rohde,
The integration of a young female in a male pack of European wolves Canis lupus L.,
Zeitschrift für Saugetierkunde - International Journal of Mammalian Biology 62(Supplement 2):209-213 (1997).

Schultz, R.N., A.P. Wydeven, and J.M. Stewart,
Acceptance of a gray wolf, Canis lupus, pup by its natal pack after 53 days in captivity,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 113(3):509-511 (1999).

Servin, J.,
Some aspects of the social behaviour of the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) in captivity,
Acta Zoologica Mexicana Nueva Serie (45):1-28 (1991) (In Spanish with English abstract).

Smith, D., T. Meier, E. Geffen, L.D. Mech, J.W. Burch, L.G. Adams, and R.K. Wayne,
Is incest common in gray wolf packs?
Behavioral Ecology 8(4):384-391 (1997).

Stahler, D.R., D.W. Smith, and R. Landis,
The acceptance of a new breeding male into a wild wolf pack,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 80(2):360-365 (2002).

Townsend, S.E.,
Social context and its role in rank related behaviors in captive gray wolves,
American Zoologist 35(5):20A (1995) (Abstract: Annual Meeting of the American Society of Zoologists, Dec. 26-30, 1995).

Vilà, C., V. Urios, and J. Castroviejo,
Possibly not male dominated interaction among Iberian wolves (Canis lupus),
Mammalia 54(2):312-314 (1990).


Asa, C.S., L.D. Mech, U.S. Seal, and E.D. Plotka,
The influence of social and endocrine factors on urine-marking by captive wolves (Canis lupus),
Hormones and Behavior 24(4):497-509 (1990).

Briscoe, B.K., M.A. Lewis, and S.E. Parrish,
Home range formation in wolves due to scent marking,
Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 64:(2) 261-284 (2002).

Coscia, E.M., D.P. Phillips, and J.C. Fentress,
Spectral analysis of neonatal wolf Canis lupus vocalizations,
Bioacoustics 3(4):275-294 (1991).

Feddersen-Petersen, D.,
Vocalization of European wolves (Canis lupus lupus L.) and various dog breeds (Canis lupus f. fam.),
Archiv für Tierzucht - Archives of Animal Breeding 43(4):387-397 (2000).

Fuller, T.K. and B.A. Sampson,
Evaluation of a simulated howling survey for wolves,
Journal of Wildlife Management 52(1):60-63 (1988).

Gaines, W.L., G.K. Neale, and R.H. Naney,
Response of coyotes and gray wolves to simulated howling in north-central Washington
Northwest Science 69(3):217-222 (1995).

Gazzola, A., E. Avanzinelli, L. Mauri, M. Scandura, and M. Apollonio,
Temporal changes of howling in south European wolf packs,
Italian Journal of Zoology 69(2):157-161 (2002).

Harrington, F. H.,
Chorus howling by wolves: Acoustic structure, pack size, and the beau geste effect,
Bioacoustics 2(2):117-136 (1989).

Kappe, T.,
Subjective resource value and the intensity of threat vocalizations in European wolves (Canis lupus lupus),
Zeitschrift für Saugetierkunde - International Journal of Mammalian Biology 62(Supplement 2):97-100 (1997).

Larom, D., M. Garstang, K. Payne, R. Raspet, and M. Lindeque,
The influence of surface atmospheric conditions on the range and area reached by animal vocalizations,
Journal of Experimental Zoology 200(3):421-431 (1997).

Lewis, M.A. and P. Moorcroft,
ESS anaylsis of mechanistic models for territoriality: The value of scent marks in spatial resource partitioning,
Journal of Theoretical Biology 210(4):449-461 (2001).

Lewis, M.A., K.A.J. White, and J.D. Murray,
Analysis of a model for wolf territories,
Journal of Mathematical Biology 35(7):749-774 (1997).

Paquet, P.C.,
Scent-marking behavior of sympatric wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (C. latrans) in Riding Mountain National Park,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 69(7):1721-1727 (1991).

Sargeant, G.A., D.H. Johnson, and W.E. Berg,
Interpreting carnivore scent-station surveys,
Journal of Wildlife Management 62(4):1235-1245 (1998).

Shabadash, S.A. and T.I. Zelikina,
Once more about hepatoid circumanal glands of dogs: History of their discovery and causes of revision of their structure and function,
Biology Bulletin 29:(2) 139-147 (2002).

Tooze, Z.J., F.H. Harrington, and J.C. Fentress,
Individually distinct vocalizations in timber wolves, Canis lupus,
Animal Behaviour 40(Part 4):723-730 (1990).

Vilà, C., V. Urios, and J. Castroviejo,
Use of faeces for scent marking in Iberian wolves (Canis lupus),
Canadian Journal of Zoology 72(2):374-377 (1994).

White, K.A.J., M.A. Lewis, and J.D. Murray,
A model of wolf-pack territory formation and maintenance,
Journal of Theoretical Biology 178(1):29-43 (1996).


Andersone, Z., V. Lucchini, E. Randi, and J. Ozolins,
Hybridization between wolves and dogs in Latvia as documented using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers,
Mammalian Biology 67(2):79-90 (2002).

Boyd, D.K., S.H. Forbes, D.H. Pletscher, and F.W. Allendorf,
Identification of Rocky Mountain gray wolves,
Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(1):78-85 (2001).

Braend, M.,
Polymorphism of a serum protease inhibitor system in Alaskan wolves,
Hereditas 108(2):269-270 (1988).

Carmichael, L.E., J.A. Nagy, N.C. Larter, and C. Strobeck,
Prey specialization may influence patterns of gene flow in wolves of the Canadian Northwest,
Molecular Ecology 10(12):2787-2798 (2001).

Crichton, V. and P.C. Paquet,
Cadmium in Manitoba's Wildlife,
Alces 36:205-216 (2000).

Dolf, G., J. Schlapfer, C. Gaillard, E. Randi, V. Lucchini, U. Breitenmoser, and N. Stahlberger-Saitbekova,
Differentiation of the Italian wolf and the domestic dog based on microsatellite analysis,
Genetics Selection Evolution 32(5):533-541 (2000).

Ellegren, H., P. Savolainen, and B. Rosen,
The genetical history of an isolated population of the endangered grey wolf Canis lupus: A study of nuclear and mitochondrial polymorphisms,
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 351(1348):1661-1669 (1996).

Federoff, N.E.,
Malocclusion in the jaws of captive bred Arctic wolves, Canis lupus arctos,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 110(4):683-687 (1996).

Federoff, N.E. and F. Kueppers,
Polymorphism of alpha1-antitrypsin in North American species of Canis,
Journal of Heredity 91(2):174-176 (2000).

Forbes, S.H. and D.K. Boyd,
Genetic variation of naturally colonizing wolves in the central Rocky Mountains,
Conservation Biology 10(4):1082-1090 (1996).

Forbes, S.H. and D.K. Boyd,
Genetic structure and migration in native and reintroduced Rocky Mountain wolf populations,
Conservation Biology 11(5):1226-1234 (1997).

Fredrickson, R. and P. Hedrick,
Captivity, inbreeding, cross-lineage matings, and body size in Mexican wolves,
Endangered Species UPDATE 18(4):164-166 (2001).

Fredrickson, R. and P. Hedrick,
Body size in endangered Mexican wolves: Effects of inbreeding and cross-lineage matings,
Animal Conservation 5(Part 1):39-43 (2002).

Garcia-Moreno, J., M.D. Matocq, M.S. Roy, E. Geffen, and R.K. Wayne,
Relationships and genetic purity of the endangered Mexican wolf based on analysis of microsatellite loci,
Conservation Biology 10(2):376-389 (1996).

Gronek,P., K. Nuc, D. Napierala, A. Plawski, M. Zajac, T. Banasiewicz, and R. Slomski,
Sequence polymorphism of exon 17 of the ryanodine receptor gene (ryr1) in the Canidae,
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 9(4):721-726 (2000).

Hedrick, P., R. Fredrickson, and H. Ellegren,
Evaluation of (d)over-bar(2), a microsatellite measure of inbreeding and outbreeding, in wolves with known pedigree,
Evolution 55(6):1256-1260 (2001).

Hedrick, P.W. and S.T. Kalinowski,
Inbreeding depression in conservation biology,
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31:139-162 (2000).

Hedrick, P.W., R.N. Lee, and K.M. Parker,
Major histocompatiblity complex (MHC) variation in the endangered Mexican wolf and related canids,
Heredity 85(6):617-624 (2000).

Hedrick, P.W., P.S. Miller, E. Geffen, and R. Wayne,
Genetic evaluation of the three captive Mexican wolf lineages,
Zoo Biology 16(1):47-69 (1997).

Hofreiter, M., D. Serre, H.N. Poinar, M. Kuch, and S. Paaho,
Ancient DNA,
Nature Reviews Genetics 2(5):353-359 (2001).

Hong, L. and S. Li-Ming,
The mitochondrial DNA evolution of four species of canidae,
Acta Theriologica Sinica 42(1):87-95 (1996) (In Chinese with English summary).

Ishiguro, N, A. Nakajima, M. Horiuchi, and M. Shinagawa,
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Lehman, N., P. Clarkson, L.D. Mech, T.J. Meier, and R.K. Wayne,
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Lehman, N., A. Eisenhawer, K. Hansen, L.D. Mech, R.O. Peterson, P.J.P. Gogan, and R.K. Wayne,
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Lorenzini, R. and R. Fico,
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Randi, E.,
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Savolainen, P., L. Arvestad, and J. Lundeberg,
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Savolainen, P., L. Arvestad, and J. Lundeberg,
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Savolainen, P. and J. Lundeberg,
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Sundqvist, A.K., H. Ellegren, M. Olivier, and C. Vila,
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Vilà, C., I.R. Amorim, J.A. Leonard, D. Posada, S.J. Castroviejo, F. Petrucci-Fonseca, K.A. Crandall, H. Ellegren, and R.K. Wayne,
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Wayne, R.K., E. Geffen, D.J. Girman, K.P. Koepfli, L.M. Lau, and C.R. Marshall,
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Wayne, R.K., D. A. Gilbert, A. Eisenhawer, N. Lehman, K. Hansen, D. Girman, R.O. Peterson, L.D. Mech, P.J.P. Gogan, U.S. Seal, and R.J. Krumenaker,
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Wayne, R.K., N. Lehman, M.W. Allard, and R.L. Honeycutt,
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Wurster-Hill, D.H., O.G. Ward, B.H. Davis, J. P. Park, R.K. Moyzis, and J. Meyne,
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Health, Disease, Injury, and Age Determination

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Casulli, A., G. La Rosa, M. Amati, and E. Pozio,
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Constable, P., K. Hinchcliff, N. Demma, M. Callahan, B. Dale, K. Fox, L. Adams, R. Wack, and L. Kramer,
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Gnamus, A., A.R. Byrne, and M. Horvat,
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Gonzalez-Barros, S.T.C., M.E. Alvarez-Pineiro, J. Simal-Lozano, and M.A. Lage-Yusty,
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Gonzalez-Barros, S.T.C., M.E.A. Pineiro, J.S. Lozano, and M.A.L. Yusty,
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Kazmierczak, J.J., E.C. Burgess, and T.E. Amundson,
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Kreeger, T.J., V.B. Kuechle, L.D. Mech, J.R. Tester, and U.S. Seal,
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Kreeger, T.J., U.S. Seal, M. Callahan, and M. Beckel,
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Mallory, F.F., T.L. Hillis, C.G. Blomme, and W.G. Hurst,
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Marquard-Petersen, U.,
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Mech, L.D. and S.M. Goyal,
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Mech, L.D. and H.J. Kurtz,
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Mech, L.D., H.J. Kurtz, and S. Goyal,
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Messier, F., M.E. Rau, and M.A. McNeill,
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Muneer, M.A., I.O. Farah, K.A. Pomeroy, S.M. Goyal, and L.D. Mech,
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Neu, H. and D.B. von Rautenfeld,
Primary congenital lymphoedema in 7 young Labrador dogs, a German shepherd dog and a Canadian wolf,
Kleintierpraxis 39(6):383-405 (1994).

Pasitschniak-Arts, M., M.E. Taylor, and L.D. Mech,
Note on skeletal injuries in an adult Arctic wolf,
Arctic and Alpine Research 20(3):360-365 (1988).

Pozio, E., A. Casulli, V.V. Bologov, G. Marucci, and G. La Rosa,
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Segovia, J.M., J. Torres, J. Miquel, L. Llaneza, and C. Feliu,
Helminths in the wolf, Canis lupus, from north-western Spain,
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Shore, R.F., A. Casulli, V. Bologov, C.L. Weinburg, A. Afsar, P. Toyne, and G. Dell'Omo,
Organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl and heavy metal concentrations in wolves (Canis lupus L. 1758) from north-west Russia,
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Theberge, J.B., G.J. Forbes, I.K. Barker, and T. Bollinger,
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Thelen, A. and M. Welle,
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Thieking, A., S.M. Goyal, R.F. Bey, K.I. Loken, L.D. Mech, R.P. Thiel, and T.P. O'Connor,
Seroprevalence of Lyme disease in gray wolves from Minnesota and Wisconsin,
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 28(2):177-182 (1992).

Thomas, P.A.,
Dosimetry of 210Po in humans, caribou, and wolves in northern Canada,
Health Physics 66(6):678-690 (1994).

Van Valkenburgh, B.,
Incidence of tooth breakage among large predatory mammals,
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Vilà, C., V. Urios, and J. Castroviejo,
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Weiler, G.J., G.W. Garner, and D.G. Ritter,
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Wheler, C.L. and A.M. Pocknell,
Ectopic perianal gland tumor in a timber wolf,
Canadian Veterinary Journal 37(1):41-42 (1996).

Wobeser, G.,
Traumatic, degenerative, and developmental lesions in wolves and coyotes from Saskatchewan,
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Zarnke, R.L., J.P. Dubey, O.C.H. Kwok, and J.M. Ver Hoef,
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Zarnke, R.L., J. Evermann, J.M.V. Hoef, M.E. McNay, R.D. Boertje, C.L. Gardner, L.G. Adams, B.W. Dale, and J. Burch,
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Zarnke, R.L., D.E. Worley, J.M. Ver Hoef, and M.E. McNay,
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Hunting, Prey, and Diet

Adams, L.G., F.J. Singer, and B.W. Dale,
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Ballard, W.B.,
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Ballard, W.B., L.A. Ayres, P.R. Krausman, D.J. Reed, and S.G. Fancy,
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Ballard, W.B., D. Lutz, T.W. Keegan, L.H. Carpenter, and J.C. deVos,
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Ballard, W.B., H.A. Whitlaw, B.F. Wakeling, R.L. Brown, J.C. deVos, Jr., and M.C. Wallace,
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Berger, J.,
Anthropogenic extinction of top carnivores and interspecific animal behavior: Implications of the rapid decoupling of a web involving wolves, bears, moose and ravens,
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Berger, J., P.B. Stacey, L. Bellis, and M.P. Johnson,
A mammalian predator-prey imbalance: Grizzly bear and wolf extinction affect avian neotropical migrants,
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Berger, J., J.E. Swenson, and I-L. Persson,
Recolonizing carnivores and naïve prey: Conservation lessons from Pleistocene extinctions,
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Bergerud, A.T.,
Caribou, wolves and man,
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Bergerud, A.T. and W.B. Ballard,
Wolf predation on caribou: The Nelchina herd case history, a different interpretation,
Journal of Wildlife Management 52(2):344-357 (1988).

Bergerud, A.T. and W.B. Ballard,
Wolf predation on the Nelchina caribou herd: A reply,
Journal of Wildlife Management 53(1):251-259 (1989).

Bergerud, A.T. and J.P. Elliot,
Wolf predation in a multiple-ungulate system in northern British Columbia,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 76(8):1551-1569 (1998).

Bertram, M.R. and N.T. Vivion,
Moose mortality in eastern interior Alaska,
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Biquand, S., V. Urios, A. Boug, C. Vilà, J. Castroviejo, and I. Nader,
Fishes as diet of a wolf (Canis lupus arabs) in Saudi Arabia,
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Bjorge, R.R. and J.R. Gunson,
Wolf, Canis lupus, population characteristics and prey relationships near Simonette River, Alberta,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 103(3):327-334 (1989).

Boertje, R.D. and R.O. Stephenson,
Effects of ungulate availability on wolf reproductive potential in Alaska,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 70(12):2441-2443 (1992).

Boertje, R.D., P. Valkenburg, and M.E. McNay,
Increases in moose, caribou, and wolves following wolf control in Alaska,
Journal of Wildlife Management 60(3):474-489 (1996).

Boman, M.,
Estimating costs and genetic benefits of various sizes of predator populations: The case of bear, wolf, wolverine and lynx in Sweden,
Journal of Environmental Management 43(4):349-357 (1995).

Boutin, S.,
Predation and moose population dynamics: A critique.
Journal of Wildlife Management 56(1):116-127 (1992).

Boyd, D.K., R.R. Ream, D.H. Pletscher, and M.W. Fairchild,
Prey taken by colonizing wolves and hunters in the Glacier National Park area,
Journal of Wildlife Management 58(2):289-295 (1994).

Carbyn, L.N.,
Unusual movement by bison, Bison bison, in response to wolf, Canis lupus, predation,
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Carbyn, L.N. and T. Trottier,
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Ciucci, P., L. Boitani, E.R. Pelliccioni, M. Rocco, and I. Guy,
A comparison of scat-analysis methods to assess the diet of the wolf Canis lupus,
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Coté, S.D., A. Peracino, and G. Simard,
Wolf, Canis lupus, predation and maternal defensive behavior in mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus,
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Cotoreave, P.,
Bringing back the wolf,
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Changes in the population dynamics of the George River caribou herd, 1976-87 (1990),
Arctic 43(1):9-20 (1990).

Cozza, K., R. Fico, M-L. Battistini, and E. Rogers,
The damage-conservation interface illustrated by predation on domestic livestock in central Italy,
Biological Conservation 78(3):329-336 (1996).

Crête, M.and M. Manseau,
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Cuesta, L., F. Barcena, F. Palacios, and S. Reig,
The trophic ecology of the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus Cabrera, 1907): A new analysis of stomach's data,
Mammalia 55(2):239-254 (1991).

Dale, B.W., L.G. Adams, and R.T. Bowyer,
Functional response of wolves preying on barren-ground caribou in a multiple-prey ecosystem,
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DelGiudice, G.D.,
Surplus killing of white-tailed deer by wolves in northcentral Minnesota,
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DelGiudice, G.D., L.S. Duquette, U.S. Seal, and L.D. Mech,
Validation of estimating food intake in gray wolves by 22Na turnover.
Journal of Wildlife Management 55(1):59-71 (1991).

DelGiudice, G.D., M.R. Riggs, P. Joly, and W. Pan,
Winter severity, survival, and cause-specific mortality of female white-tailed deer in north-central Minnesota,
Journal of Wildlife Management 66(3):698-717 (2002).

Eberhardt, L.L.,
Is wolf predation ratio-dependent?,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 75(11):1940-1944 (1997).

Eberhardt, L.L.,
Applying difference equations to wolf predation,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 76(2):380-386 (1998).

Eberhardt, L.L.,
Erratum: Applying difference equations to wolf predation,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:1208 <1998).

Eberhardt, L.L.,
Reply: Predator-prey ratio dependence and regulation of moose populations,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 78(3):511-513 (2000).

Eberhardt, L.L. and R.O. Peterson,
Predicting the wolf-prey equilibrium point,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 77(3):494-498 (1999).

Eberhardt, L.L. and K.W. Pitcher,
A further analysis of the Nelchina caribou and wolf data,
Wildlife Society Bulletin 20(4):385-395 (1992).

Forbes, G.J. and J.B. Theberge,
Importance of scavenging on moose by wolves in Algonquin Park, Ontario,
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Forbes, G.J. and J.B. Theberge,
Response by wolves to prey variation in central Ontario,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 74(8):1511-1520 (1996).

Fuller, T.K.,
Effect of snow depth on wolf activity and prey selection in north central Minnesota,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 69(2):283-287 (1991).

Fuller, T.K. and W.J. Snow,
Estimating winter wolf densities using radiotelemetry data,
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Gade-Jorgensen, I. and R. Stagegaard,
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Gasaway, W.C., R.D. Boertje, D.V. Grangaard, D.G. Kelleyhouse, R.O. Stephenson, and D.G. Larsen,
The role of predation in limiting moose at low densities in Alaska and Yukon and implications for conservation,
Wildlife Monographs (120):1-59 (1992)*.
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Genov, P. W. and V. Kostava,
Investigations on the number of wolves and their effects on domestic animals in Bulgaria,
Zeitschrift für Jagdwissenschaft 39(4):217-223 (1993) (In German with English summary).

Glowacinski, Z. and P. Profus,
Potential impact of wolves Canis lupus on prey populations in eastern Poland,
Biological Conservation 80(1):99-106 (1997).

Gordiyuk, N.M.,
Interrelations between wolves and ungulates as registered by the observation of the marked wolf pack in the Southern Urals,
Byulleten' Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytatelei Prirody Qtdel 96(1):3-10 (1991) (In Russian with English summary).

Hatter, I.W. and D.W. Janz,
Apparent demographic changes in black-tailed deer associated with wolf control on northern Vancouver Island,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 72(5):878-884 (1994).

Hayes, R.D., A.M. Baer, U. Wotschikowsky, and A.S. Harestad,
Kill rate by wolves on moose in the Yukon,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 78(1):49-59 (2000).

Hayes, R.D. and A.S. Harestad,
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Laundre, J.W., L. Hernandez, and K.B. Altendorf,
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Lukarevsky, V.S.,
Feeding of leopard (Panthera pardus), striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) and wolf (Canis lupus) in the south-west Koppeh Dagh,
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Marquard-Petersen, U.,
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Mattioli, L., M. Apollonio, V. Mazzarone, and E. Centofanti,
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McLaren, B.E. and R.O. Peterson,
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Mech, L.D. and L.G. Adams,
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Nelson, M.E. and L.D. Mech,
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Okarma, H.,
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Okarma, H., B. Jedrzejewska, W. Jedrzejewski, Z.A. Krasinski, and L. Milkowski,
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Potvin, F., L. Breton, C. Pilon, and M. Macquart,
Impact of an experimental wolf reduction on beaver in Papineau-Labelle Reserve, Quebec,
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Potvin, F., H. Jolicoeur, L. Breton, and R. Lemieux,
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Potvin, F., H. Jolicoeur, L. Breton, and R. Lemieux
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Canadian Journal of Zoology 70(12):2501 (1992).

Potvin, F., H. Jolicoeur, and J. Huot,
Wolf diet and prey selectivity during two periods for deer in Quebec: Decline versus expansion,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 66(6):1274-1279 (1988).

Poulle, M.L., L. Carles, and B. Lequette,
Significance of ungulates in the diet of recently settled wolves in the Mercantour mountains (southeastern France),
Revue D'Ecologie - La Terre et La Vie 52(4):357-368 (1997).

Reig, S.,
Non aggressive encounter between a wolf pack and a wild boar,
Mammalia 57(3):451-453 (1993).

Rettie, W.J. and F. Messier,
Dynamics of woodland caribou populations at the southern limit of their range in Saskatchewan,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 76(2):251-259 (1998).

Robinson, W. L., D.J. Groebner, and R.N. Schultz,
Foraging of gray wolves at a great blue heron rookery,
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Route, W. T. and R. O. Peterson,
An incident of wolf, Canis lupus, predation on a river otter, Lutra canadensis, in Minnesota,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 105(4):567-568 (1991).

Ryabov, L.S., Yu.P. Likhatskii, and N.M. Nikitin,
The relationship of wolves (Canis lupus L.) in Voronezh Reserve to wild and domestic ungulates,
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Schmidt, P.A. and L.D. Mech,
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Scotter, G.W.,
Influence of harassment by wolves, Canis lupus, on barren-ground caribou,
Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus, movements near the Burnside River, Northwest Territories,
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Seip, D.R.,
Factors limiting woodland caribou populations and their interrelationships with wolves and moose in southeastern British Columbia,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 70(8):1494-1503 (1992).

Shevchenko, L.S. and B.E. Borisovets,
Intraspecific structure of predatory mammals in the European U.S.S.R. (with the use of multidimensional analysis): Communication I. The wolf,
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Skogland, T.,
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Smietana W. and A. Klimek,
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Smith, D.W., L.D. Mech, M. Meagher, W.E. Clark, R. Jaffe, M.K. Phillips, and J.A. Mack,
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Smith, M.E., J.D.C. Linnell, J.Odden, and J.E. Swenson,
Review of methods to reduce livestock depredation: I. Guardian animals,
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Spaulding, R., P.R. Krausman, and W.B. Ballard,
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Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(4):947-950 (2000).

Spaulding, R.L., P.R. Krausman, and W.B. Ballard,
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Stephenson, T.R. and V. Van Ballenberghe,
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Stephenson, T.R. and V. Van Ballenberghe,
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Szepanski, M.M., M. Ben-David, and V. Van Ballenberghe,
Assessment of anadromous salmon resources in the diet of the Alexander Archipelago wolf using stable isotope analysis,
Oecologia 120(3):327-335 (1999).

Taylor, R.J. and P.J. Pekins,
Territory boundary avoidance as a stabilizing factor in wolf-deer interactions,
Theoretical Population Biology 39(2):115-128 (1991).

Testa, J.W.,
Does predation on neonates inherently select for earlier births?,
Journal of Mammalogy 83(3):699-706 (2002).

Theberge, J.B.,
Potentials for misinterpreting impacts of wolf predation through prey:predator
Wildlife Society Bulletin 18(2):188-192 (1990).

Thompson, I.D. and R.O. Peterson,
Does wolf predation alone limit the moose population in Pukaskwa Park?: A comment,
Journal of Wildlife Management 52(3):556-559 (1988).

Tremblay, J., H. Jolicoeur, and R. Lemieux,
Summer food habits of gray wolves in the boreal forest of the Lac Jacques-Cartier Highlands, Quebec,
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Tugat, R. and G.B. Schaller,
Status and distribution of wild Bactrian camels Camelus bactrianus ferus,
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Valkenburg, P.,
Stumbling toward enlightenment: Understanding caribou dynamics,
Alces 37(2):457-474 (2001).

Valkenburg, P., D.G. Kelleyhouse, J.L. Davis, and J.M. Ver Hoef,
Case history of the Fortymile Caribou Herd, 1920-1990,
Rangifer 14(1):11-22 (1994).

Van Ballenberghe, V.,
Wolf predation on the Nelchina Caribou Herd: A comment,
Journal of Wildlife Management 53(1):243-250 (1989).

Van Ballenberghe, V. and W.B. Ballard,
Limitations and regulation of moose populations: The role of predation,
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Vos, J.,
Food habits and livestock depredation of two Iberian wolf packs (Canis lupus signatus) in the north of Portugal,
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Walton, L.R., H.D. Cluff, P.C. Paquet, and M.A. Ramsay,
Movement patterns of barren-ground wolves in the central Canadian Arctic,
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Weaver, J.L.,
Refining the equation for interpreting prey occurrence in gray wolf scats,
Journal of Wildlife Management 57(3):534-538 (1993).

Weaver, J.L., C. Arvidson, and P. Wood,
Two wolves, Canis lupus, killed by a moose, Alces alces, in Jasper National Park, Alberta,
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Wolf-deer interactions: A mathematical model,
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White, K.S., J.W. Testa, and J. Berger,
Behavioral and ecological effects of differential predation pressure on moose in Alaska,
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Wirsing, A.J., T.D. Steury, and D.L. Murray,
Relationship between body condition and vulnerability to predation in red squirrels and snowshoe hares,
Journal of Mammalogy 83(3):707-715 (2002).

Zhongxin, G., M. Jianzhang, and Z. Honghai,
Preliminary studies on the food habits of the wolves in eastern Mongolia,
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Interactions with Other Predators

Arjo, W.M. and D.H. Pletscher,
Behavioral responses of coyotes to wolf recolonization in northwestern Montana,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 77(12):1919-1927 (1999).

Arjo, W.M., D.H. Pletscher, and R.R. Ream,
Dietary overlap between wolves and coyotes in northwestern Montana,
Journal of Mammalogy 83(3):754-766 (2002).

Boyd, D.K. and G.K. Neale,
An adult cougar, Felis concolor, killed by gray wolves, Canis lupus, in Glacier National Park, Montana,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 106(4):524-525 (1992).

Crête, M., J.P. Ouellet, J.P. Tremblay, and R. Arsenault,
Suitability of the forest landscape for coyotes in northeastern North America and its implications for coexistence with other carnivores,
Ecoscience 8(3):311-319 (2001).

Dekker, D.,
Population fluctuations and spatial relationships among wolves, Canis lupus, coyotes, Canis latrans, and red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, in Jasper National Park, Alberta,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 103(2):261-264 (1989).

Gehring, T.M.,
Adult black bear, Ursus americanus, displaced from kill by a wolf, Canis lupus, pack,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 107(3):373-374 (1993).

Hayes, R. D. and A. Baer,
Brown bear, Ursus arctos, preying upon gray wolf, Canis lupus, pups at a wolf den,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 106(2):381-382 (1992).

Jedrzejewski, W., B. Jedrzejewska, and A. Szymura,
Food niche overlaps in a winter community of predators in the Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland,
Acta Theriologica 34(29-43):487-496 (1989).

Kehoe, N.M.,
Grizzly bear, Ursus arctos, - wolf, Canis lupus, interaction in Glacier National Park, Montana,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 109(1):117-118 (1995).

Kumar, S.,
Unusual interaction between wolf and short-toed eagle,
Journal of Raptor Research 30(1):41-42 (1996).

Kunkel, K.E. and L.D. Mech,
Wolf and bear predation on white-tailed deer fawns in northeastern Minnesota,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 72(9):1557-1565 (1994).

Kunkel, K.E., T.K. Ruth, D.H. Pletscher, and M.G. Hornocker,
Winter prey selection by wolves and cougars in and near Glacier National Park, Montana,
Journal of Wildlife Management 63(3):901-910 (1999).

Linnell, J.D.C. and O. Strand,
Do arctic foxes Alopex lagopus depend on kills made by large predators?,
Wildlife Biology 8:(1) 69-75 (2002).

MacNulty, D.R., N. Varley, and D.W. Smith,
Grizzly bear, Ursus arctos, usurps Bison, Bison bison, captured by wolves, Canis lupus, in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 115(3):495-498 (2001).

Paquet, P.C.,
Winter spatial relationships of wolves and coyotes in Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba,
Journal of Mammalogy 72(2):397-401 (1991).

Paquet, P.C.,
Prey use strategies of sympatric wolves and coyotes in Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba,
Journal of Mammalogy 73(2):337-343 (1992).

Smith, D.W., K.M. Murphy, and S. Monger,
Killing of a bison, Bison bison, calf by a wolf, Canis lupus, and four coyotes, Canis latrans, in Yellowstone National Park,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 115(2):343-345 (2001).

Thurber, J. M., R.O. Peterson, J.D. Woolington, and J.A. Vucetich,
Coyote coexistence with wolves on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 70(12):2494-2498 (1992).

Veitch, A.M., W.E. Clarke, and F.H. Harrington,
Observations of an interaction between a barren-ground black bear, Ursus americanus, and a wolf, Canis lupus, at a wolf den in northern Labrador,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 107(1):95-97 (1993).

White, P.A. and D.K. Boyd,
A cougar, Felis concolor, kitten killed and eaten by gray wolves, Canis lupus, in Glacier National Park, Montana,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 103(3):408-409 (1989).


Afik, D. and B. Pinshow,
Temperature regulation and water economy in desert wolves,
Journal of Arid Environments 24(2):197-209 (1993).

Boyd, D.K., L.B. Secrest, and D.H. Pletscher,
A wolf, Canis lupus, killed in an avalanche in southwestern Alberta,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 106(4):526 (1992).

Dekker, D,
Pack size and colour morphs of one wolf, Canis lupus, pack in Jasper National Park, Alberta, 1979-1998,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 112(4):709-710 (1998).

Gipson, P.S. and W.B. Ballard,
Accounts of famous North American wolves, Canis lupus,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 112(4):724-739 (1998).

Gipson, P.S., W.B. Ballard, and R.M. Nowak,
Famous North American wolves and the credibility of early wildlife literature,
Wildlife Society Bulletin 26(4):808-816 (1998).

Knight, J.,
On the extinction of the Japanese wolf,
Asian Folklore Studies 56(1):129-159 (1997).

Mizuno, A.,
Japanese monkeys, dogs and wolves,
Honyurui Kagaku 35(1):53-55 (1995). (In Japanese).

Orioni, A.,
A lynx (Lynx lynx L.) and a wolf (Canis lupus L.) captured in the Lombardy Alps in the previous century,
Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 133(6):81-87 (1992).

Perzanowski, K.,
The wolf: Its ecology and interactions with other species,
Honyurui Kagaku 35(1):29-33 (1995) (In Japanese).

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Populations, Management, and Numbers

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Fadeev, E.V.,
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Fritts, S.H. and W.J. Paul,
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Fuller, T.K.,
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Gaines, W.L.,
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Gunson, J.R.,
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Haber, G.C.,
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Conservation Biology 10(4):1068-1081 (1996).

Haight, R.G. and L.D. Mech,
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Haight, R.G., D.J. Mladenoff, A.P. Wydeven,
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Harrison, D.J. and T.G. Chapin,
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Hayes, R.D. and A.S. Harestad,
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Hazell, C.J.,
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Jedrzejewski, W., K. Schmidt, J. Theuerkauf, B. Jedrzejewska, and H. Okarma,
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Kellert, S.R., M. Black, C.R. Rush, and A.J. Bath,
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Kojola, I. and J. Kuittinen,
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Kovar, R.,
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Linnell, J.D.C., J. Odden, M.E. Smith, R. Aanes, and J.E. Swenson,
Large carnivores that kill livestock: Do "problem individuals" really exist?,
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Linnell, J.D.C., J.E. Swenson, and R. Anderson,
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Lohr, C., W.B. Ballard, and A. Bath,
Attitudes toward gray wolf reintroduction to New Brunswick,
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Lucchini, V., E. Fabbri, F. Marucco, S. Ricci, L. Boitani, and E. Randi,
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Mech, L.D.,
Wolf population survival in an area of high road density,
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Mech, L.D.,
A ten-year history of the demography and productivity of an Arctic wolf pack,
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Mech, L.D.,
The challenge and opportunity of recovering wolf populations
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Mech, L.D.,
A new era for carnivore conservation,
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Mech, L.D.,
Estimated costs of maintaining a recovered wolf population in agricultural regions of Minnesota,
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Mech, L.D.,
Managing MInnesota's recovered wolves,
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Mech, L.D., S.H. Fritts, G.L. Radde, and W.J. Paul,
Wolf distribution and road density in Minnesota,
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Mech, L.D., S.H. Fritts, and D. Wagner,
Minnesota wolf dispersal to Wisconsin and Michigan,
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Mech, L.D.,
A record large wolf, Canis lupus, pack in Minnesota,
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Mech, L.D., S.H. Fritts, and M.E. Nelson,
Wolf management in the 21st century: From public input to sterilization,
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Merrill, S.B. and L.D. Mech,
Details of extensive movements by Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus),
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Miller, B., B. Dugelby, D. Foreman, C. Martinez del Rio, R. Nosa, M. Phillips, R. Reading, M.E. Soulé, J. Terborgh, and L. Willcox,
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Miller, D.H., A.L. Jensen, and J.H. Hammill,
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Miller, F.L. and F.D. Reintjes,
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Mladenoff, D.J., R.G. Haight, T.A. Sickley, and A.P. Wydevan,
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Mladenoff, D.J. and T.A. Sickley,
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Mladenoff, D.J., T.A. Sickley, R.G. Haight, and A.P. Wydevan,
A regional landscape analysis and prediction of favorable gray wolf habitat in the northern Great Lakes region,
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Mladenoff, D.J., T.A. Sickley, and A.P. Wydevan,
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Molin, G.,
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Musiani, M. and E. Visalberghi,
Effectiveness of fladry on wolves in captivity,
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Noss, R.F., C. Carroll, K. Vance-Borland, and G. Wuerthner,
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Okarma, H.,
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Parde, J.,
100 years ago wolves in France,
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Parsons, D.R.,
"Green fire" returns to the southwest: Reintroduction of the Mexican wolf,
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Pate, J., M.J. Manfredo, A.D. Bright, and G. Tischbein,
Coloradans' attitudes toward reintroducing the gray wolf into Colorado,
Wildlife Society Bulletin 24(3):421-428 (1996).

Peterson, R.O.,
Wolf-moose interaction on Isle Royale: The end of natural regulation?
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Peterson, R.O. and R.J. Krumanaker,
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Powell, R.A.,
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Schwartz, C.C. and A.W. Franzmann,
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Smietana, W. and J. Wajda,
Wolf number changes in Bieszczady National Park, Poland,
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Sneed, P.G.,
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Spence, C.E., J.E. Kenyon, D.R. Smith, R.D. Hayes, and A.M. Baer,
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Steen, H. and N.C. Stenseth,
The hazard of being few: The reality for Norwegian populations of wolves and brown bears,
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Theberge, J.B.,
Ecological classification, status, and management of the gray wolf, Canis lupus, in Canada,
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Theberge, J. B.,
Correction: Ecological classification, status, and management of the gray wolf, Canis lupus, in Canada (The Canadian Field-Naturalist 105(4):459-463 (1991)),
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Thurber, J.M. and R.O. Peterson,
Effects of population density and pack size on the foraging ecology of gray wolves,
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Thurber, J.M., R.O. Peterson, T.D. Drummer, and S.A. Thomasma,
Gray wolf response to refuge boundaries and roads in Alaska.
Wildlife Society Bulletin 22(1):61-68 (1994).

Treves, A., R.R. Jurewicz, and L. Naughton-Treves,
Wolf depredation on domestic animals in Wisconsin, 1976-2000,
Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(1):231-241 (2002).

Trokowicz, L. and K. Kawenczynski,
Wolves in the Biebrza River valley still threatened,
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Tucker, P. and D.H. Pletscher,
Attitudes of hunters and residents toward wolves in northwestern Montana,
Wildlife Society Bulletin 17(4):509-514 (1989).

Vucetich, J.A., R.O. Peterson, and T.A. Waite,
Effects of social structure and prey dynamics on extinction risk in gray wolves,
Conservation Biology 11(4):957-965 (1997).

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The recovery, distribution, and population dynamics of wolves on the Scandinavian peninsula, 1978-1998,
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Resilience and conservation of large carnivores in the Rocky Mountains,
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A global perspective on large carnivore conservation,
Conservation Biology 10(4):1046-1054 (1996).

Williams, C.K., G. Ericsson, and T.A. Heberlein,
A quantitative summary of attitudes toward wolves and their reintroduction (1972-2000).
Wildlife Society Bulletin 30(2):575-84 (2002).

Wilson, M.A.,
The wolf in Yellowstone: Science, symbol, or politics? Deconstructing the conflict between environmentalism and wise use,
Society and Natural Resources 10(5):453-468 (1997).

Woodroffe, R. and J.R. Ginsberg,
Edge effects and the extinction of populations inside protected areas,
Science 280:2126-2128 (1998).

Wydeven, A.P., T.K. Fuller, W. Weber, and K. MacDonald,
The potential for wolf recovery in the northeastern United States via dispersal from southeastern Canada,
Wildlife Society Bulletin 26(4):776-784 (1998).

Wydeven, A.P., D.J. Mladenoff, T.A. Sickley, B.E. Kohn, R.P. Thiel, and J.L. Hansen,
Road density as a factor in habitat selection by wolves and other carnivores in the Great Lakes region,
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Reproduction: Physiology, Behavior, and Pups

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Canid reproductive biology: An integration of proximate mechanisms and ultimate causes,
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Efficacy, safety, and reversibility of a bisdiamine male-directed oral contraceptive in gray wolves (Canis lupus),
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Ballard, W.B., L.A. Ayres, C.L. Gardner, and J.W. Foster,
Den site activity patterns of gray wolves, Canis lupus, in southcentral Alaska,
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Successful rearing of young by wild wolves without mates,
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Boyd, D.K., R.R. Ream, D.H. Pletscher, and M.W. Fairchild,
Variation in denning and parturition dates of a wild gray wolf, Canis lupus, in the
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Canadian Field-Naturalist 107(3):359-360 (1993).

Burton, R.,
Wolves breeding in northeast Greenland,
Polar Record 26:334 (1990).

Ciucci, P. and L.D. Mech,
Selection of wolf dens in relation to winter territories in northeastern Minnesota,
Journal of Mammalogy 73(4):899-905 (1992).

Coscia, E.M.,
Swimming and aquatic play by timber wolf, Canis lupus, pups,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 107(3):361-362 (1993).

Derix, R.R.W.M. and J.A.R.A.M. Van Hooff,
Male and female partner preferences in a captive wolf pack (Canis lupus): Specificity versus spread of sexual attention,
Behaviour 132(Parts 1-2):127-149 (1995).

Derix, R., J. Van Hooff, H. De Vries, and J. Wensing,
Male and female mating competition in wolves: Female suppression vs. male intervention,
Behaviour 127:(Parts 1-2):141-174 (1993).

Fuller, T.K.,
Denning behavior in wolves in north-central Minnesota,
American Midland Naturalist 121(1):184-188 (1989).

Goldman, J.A., D.P. Phillips, and J.C. Fentress,
An acoustic basis for maternal recognition in timber wolves (Canis lupus)?
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 97(3):1970-1973 (1995).

Gray, D.R.,
The use of muskox kill sites as temporary rendezvous sites by Arctic wolves with pups in early winter,
Arctic 46(4):324-330 (1993).

Haase, E.,
Comparison of reproductive biological parameters in male wolves and domestic dogs,
Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde - International Journal of Mammalian Biology 65(5):257-270 (2000).

Heard, D.C. and T.M. Williams,
Distribution of wolf dens on migratory caribou ranges in the Northwest Territories, Canada,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 70(8):1504-1510 (1992).

Hillis, T.L. and F.F. Mallory,
Fetal development in wolves, Canis lupus, of the Keewatin District, Northwest Territories, Canada,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 74(12):2211-2218 (1996).

Kreeger, T.J., U.S. Seal, Y. Cohen, E.D. Plotka, and C.S. Asa,
Characterization of prolactin secretion in gray wolves (Canis lupus),
Canadian Journal of Zoology 69(5):1366-1374 (1991).

Kreeger, T.J., U.S. Seal, and E.D. Plotka,
Influence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical hormones on reproductive hormones in gray wolves (Canis lupus),
Journal of Experimental Zoology 264(1):32-41 (1992).

Maargaard, L.,
Observation of polarwolf reproduction at Danmarkshavn, North-East Greenland,
Flora og Fauna 94(4):89-92 (1988) (In Danish with English summary).

Maargaard, L. and J. Graugaard,
Female Arctic wolf, Canis lupus arctos, mating with domestic dogs, Canis familiaris, in northeast Greenland,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 108(3):374-375 (1994).

Marquard-Petersen, U.,
Dens and summer pack size of Arctic wolves in Hold with Hope, East Greenland,
Polar Record 30(172):46-49 (1994).

McLeod, P.J.,
Infanticide by female wolves,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 68(2):402-404 (1990).

Mech, L.D.,
Resistance of young wolf pups to inclement weather,
Journal of Mammalogy 74(2):485-486 (1993).

Mech, L.D.,
Summer movements and behavior of an Arctic wolf, Canis lupus, pack without pups,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 109(4):473-475 (1995).

Mech, L.D., T.J. Meier, and U.S. Seal,
Wolf nipple measurements as indices of age and breeding status.
American Midland Naturalist 129(2):266-271 (1993).

Mech, L.D. and M.E. Nelson,
Polygyny in a wild wolf pack,
Journal of Mammalogy 70(3):675-676 (1989).

Mech, L.D. and M.K. Nelson,
Non-family wolf, Canis lupus, packs,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 104(3):482-483 (1990).

Mech, L.D. and J.M. Packard,
Possible use of wolf, Canis lupus, den over several centuries,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 104(3):484-485 (1990).

Mech, L.D., M.K. Phillips, D.W. Smith, and T.J. Kreeger,
Denning behavior of non-gravid Wolves, Canis lupus,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 110(2):343-345 (1996).

Norris, D.R., M.T. Theberge, and J.B. Theberge,
Forest composition around wolf (Canis lupus) dens in eastern Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 80(5):866-872 (2002).

Packard, J.M., L.D. Mech, and R.R. Ream,
Weaning in an Arctic wolf pack: Behavioral mechanisms,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 70(7):1269-1275 (1992).

Ream, R.R., M.W. Fairchild, D.K. Boyd, and A.J. Blakesley,
First wolf den in western U.S. in recent history,
Northwestern Naturalist 70:39-40 (1989).

Ryabov, L.S.,
Peculiarities of the reproduction of wolves (Canis lupus L.) in the Central Chernozem Zone [Russian S.F.S.R. U.S.S.R.],
Ekologiya (Sverdlovsk) (6):42-48 (1988) (In Russian).

Thiel, R.P., W.H. Hall, and R.N. Schultz,
Early den digging by wolves, Canis lupus, in Wisconsin,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 111(3):481-482 (1997).

Thiel, R.P., S. Merrill, and L.D. Mech,
Tolerance by denning wolves, Canis lupus, to human disturbance,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 112(2):340-342 (1998).

Telemetry, Capture Collar, and Trapping

Ballard, W.B., M. Edwards, S.G. Fancy, S. Boe, and P.R. Krausman,
Comparison of VHF and satellite telemetry for estimating sizes of wolf territories in northwest Alaska,
Wildlife Society Bulletin 26(4):823-829 (1998).

Keating, K.A., W.G. Brewster, and C. H. Key,
Satellite telemetry performance of animal-tracking systems,
Journal of Wildlife Management 55(1):160-171 (1991).

Kreeger, T.J., V.B. Kuechle, L.D. Mech, J.R. Tester, and U.S. Seal,
Physiological monitoring of gray wolves (Canis lupus) by radiotelemetry,
Journal of Mammalogy 71(2):258-261 (1990).

Kunkel, K.E., R.C. Chapman, L.D. Mech, and E.M. Gese,
Testing the Wildlink activity-detection system on wolves and white-tailed deer,
Canadian Journal of Zoology 69(9):2466-2469 (1991).

Matyushkin, E.N.,
Tracks and tracking techniques in studies of large carnivorous mammals,
Zoologichesky Zhurnal 79(4):412-429 (2000) (In Russian with English summary).

Mech, L.D. and E.M. Gese,
Field testing the Wildlink capture collar on wolves.
Wildlife Society Bulletin 20(2):221-223 (1992).

Merrill, S.B., L.G. Adams, M.E.Nelson, and L.D. Mech,
Testing releasable GPS radiocollars on wolves and white-tailed deer,
Wildlife Society Bulletin 26(4):830-835 (1998).

Okarma, H. and W. Jedrzejewski,
Livetrapping wolves with nets,
Wildlife Society Bulletin 25(1):78-82 (1997).

Sahr, D.P. and F.F. Knowlton,
Evaluation of tranquilizer trap devices (TTDs) for foothold traps used to capture gray wolves,
Wildlife Society Bulletin 28(3):597-605 (2000).

Theuerkauf, J. and W. Jedrzejewski,
Accuracy of radiotelemetry to estimate wolf activity and locations,
Journal of Wildlife Management 66(3):859-864 (2002).

Thiel, R.,
Successful release of a wild wolf, Canis lupus, following treatment of a leg injury,
Canadian Field-Naturalist 114(2):317-319 (2000).

Walton, L.R., H.D. Cluff, P.C. Paquet, and M.A. Ramsay,
Performance of 2 models of satellite collars for wolves,
Wildlife Society Bulletin 29(1):180-186 (2001).

Red Wolf (Canis rufus)

Acton, A.E., L. Munson, and W.T. Waddell,
Survey of necropsy results in captive red wolves (Canis rufus), 1992-1996.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 31(1):2-8 (2000).

Beyer, A.B. and M. Grossman,
Tick paralysis in a red wolf,
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33(4):900-902 (1997).

Brownlow, C.A.,
Molecular taxonomy and the conservation of the red wolf and other endangered carnivores,
Conservation Biology 10(2):390-396 (1996).

Federoff, N.E. and R.M. Nowak,
Cranial and dental abnormalities of the endangered red wolf Canis rufus,
Acta Theriologica 43(3):293-300 (1998).
(An erratum insert placed in Acta Theriologica 43(4), 1998, corrects the caption of Figure 1 on page 296 of the above article.)

Gardner, A.L.,
Red wolf specimen identity,
Conservation Biology 12(3):499 (1998). (Letter)

Gilbreath, J.D. and V.G. Henry,
Red wolf recovery: Regulations and private lands in northeastern North Carolina,
Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 63:451-456 (1998).

Goodrowe, K.L., M.A. Hay, C.C. Platz, S.K. Behrns, M.H. Jones, and W.T. Waddell,
Characteristics of fresh and frozen-thawed red wolf (Canis rufus) spermatozoa,
Animal Reproduction Science 53(1-4):299-308 (1998).

Goodrowe, K.L., S.L. Walker, D.P. Ryckman, G.F. Mastromonaco, M.A. Hay, H.L. Bateman, and W.T. Waddell,
Piecing together the puzzle of carnivore reproduction,
Animal Reproduction Science 60-61:389-403 (2000).

Harrenstien, L.A., L. Munson, E.C. Ramsay, C.F. Lucash, S.A. Kania, and L.N.D. Potgieter,
Antibody responses of red wolves to canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus vaccination,
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 33(3):600-605 (1997).

Kalinowski, S.T., P.W. Hedrick, and P.S. Miller,
No inbreeding depression observed in Mexican and red wolf captive breeding programs,
Conservation Biology 13(6):1371-1377 (1999).

Kearns, K., J. Sleeman, L. Frank, and L. Munson,
Zinc-responsive dermatosis in a red wolf (Canis rufus),
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 31(2):255-258 (2000).

Koehler, J.K., C.C. Platz,Jr., W. Waddell, M.H. Jones, and S. Behrns,
Semen parameters and electron microscope observations of spermatozoa of the red wolf, Canis rufus,
Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 114(1):95-101 (1998).

Koehler, J.K., C.C. Platz, Jr., W. Waddell, M.H. Jones, R. Smith, and S. Behrns,
Spermophagy in semen in the red wolf, Canis rufus,
Molecular Reproduction and Development 37(4):457-461 (1994).

Neiffer, D.L., E.C. Klein, C. Becker-Courtney, and S.K. Marks,
Cecal inversion and subsequent colocolic intussusception in a red wolf (Canis rufus gregoryi),
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 30(1):119-125 (1999).

Nowak, R.M.,
The red wolf is not a hybrid,
Conservation Biology 6(4):593-595 (1992).

Nowak, R.M. and N.E. Federoff,
Validity of the red wolf: Response to Roy et al.,
Conservation Biology 12(3):722-725 (1998).

Parker, W.T. and M.K. Phillips,
Application of the experimental population designation to recovery of endangered red wolves,
Wildlife Society Bulletin 19(1):73-79 (1991).

Phillips, M.K. and V.G. Henry,
Comments on red wolf taxonomy,
Conservation Biology 6(4):596-599 (1992).

Phillips, M. K. and J. Scheck,
Parasitism in captive and reintroduced red wolves,
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 27(3):498-501 (1991).

Reich, D.E., R.K. Wayne, and D.B. Goldstein,
Genetic evidence for a recent origin by hybridization of red wolves,
Molecular Ecology 8(1):139-144 (1999).

Roy, M.S., E. Geffen, D. Smith, and R.K. Wayne,
Molecular Genetics of Pre-1940 Red Wolves,
Conservation Biology 10(5):1413-1424 (1996).

Roy, M.S., D.J. Girman, A.C. Taylor, and R.K. Wayne,
The use of museum specimens to reconstruct the genetic variability and relationships of extinct populations,
Experientia 50(6):551-557 (1994).

Sladky, K.K., B.T. Kelly, M.R. Loomis, M.K. Stoskopf, and W.A. Horne,
Cardiorespiratory effects of four alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist-ketamine combinations in captive red wolves,
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217(9):1366-1371 (2000).

van Manen, F.T., B.A. Crawford, and J.D. Clark,
Predicting red wolf release success in the southeastern United States,
Journal of Wildlife Management 64(4):895-902 (2000).

Walker, S.L., W.T. Waddell, and K.L. Goodrowe,
Reproductive endocrine patterns in captive female and male red wolves (Canis rufus) assessed by fecal and serum hormone analysis,
Zoo Biology 21(4):321-335 (2002).

Wayne, R.K. and S.M. Jenks,
Mitochondrial DNA analysis implying extensive hybridization of the endangered red wolf Canis rufus,
Nature 351(6327):565-568 (1991).

Wayne, R.K., M.S. Roy, and J.L. Gittleman,
Origin of the red wolf: Response to Nowak and Federoff and Gardener,
Conservation Biology 12(3):726-729 (1998).